2020 Web Catalog - Flipbook - Page 485
Water System Definitions 17
ELEVATION – The vertical distance between the level
where fluid enters a pipe and the level where it leaves.
It must be added to the TOTAL DISCHARGE HEAD if the
inlet is lower than the outlet and subtracted if the inlet is
higher. As a rule of good installation practice, however,
pipes should slope continuously upward from the inlet to the
outlet to prevent entrapment of air.
FRICTION LOSS – The loss of pressure or head due to the
resistance to flow in the pipe and fittings. Friction loss is
influenced by pipe size and fluid velocity, and is usually
expressed in feet of head.
HORIZONTAL RUN – The horizontal distance between the
point where fluid enters a pipe and the point at which it
PUMPING LEVEL – The lowest water level reached during
SERVICE PRESSURE – The range of pressure in the
pressure tank during the pumping cycle, usually expressed
on pounds per square inch gauge (P.S.I.G.)
SETTING – The vertical distance from the level at which the
discharge pipe leaves the well to the bottom of the pump of
jet assembly in the well.
10’ OR MORE TO KEEP OUT OF SEDIMENT
STATIC OR STANDING WATER LEVEL – The undisturbed
level of water in the well before pumping.
SUBMERGENCE – The vertical distance between PUMPING
LEVEL and the bottom of the pump or jet assembly.
Submergence must be sufficient to insure that the suction
opening of the pump or jet assembly is always covered with
water, while maintaining enough clearance from the bottom
of the well to keep it out of sediment (at least 10 feet
clearance is recommended).
TOTAL DISCHARGE HEAD – The total pressure or head the
pump must develop. It is the sum of the depth to PUMPING
LEVEL, THE ELEVATION, THE SERVICE PRESSURE, and THE
FRICTION LOSS. Of course, all of these measurements must
be expressed in the same units, usually feet of head, before
adding them together.
Technical & Engineering
DRAWDOWN – The distance that the water level in
the well is lowered by pumping. It is the difference between
the STATIC WATER LEVEL and the
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